外国教育研究

2019, v.46;No.354(12) 83-97

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英国选考制度下“理科萎缩”的危害、诱因及干预机制探析
Analysis on the Harm,Inducement and Intervention Mechanism of "Science Atrophy" in the GCE A-level Subjects Choice

苗学杰;姜媛媛;
MIAO Xuejie;JIANG Yuanyuan;Faculty of Education,Henan Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

英国GCE-A级考试选考实施过程中出现了"理科萎缩"现象,引发高校专业人才培养"失根"、工程技术人员供给失衡及经济增长和国际竞争力下滑等危机。受个体利益最大化的"经济人"驱动,科目的主客观难度、不同科目可比性政策、中学绩效排名压力下的"蓄意"指导、文化陈规和性别偏见是造成"理科萎缩"的主要原因。鉴于此,英国积极完善干预和引导机制,通过政府繁荣理科战略的顶层设计、考试机构科目等值赋分技术优化、中学生涯规划和学术体验的科学引导、大学专业招录选科指引的精准限定、专业学会的激励与支持等手段对"理科萎缩"进行干预和调适。探索这一问题对于解决我国高考改革中"弃考物理"难题具有一定的现实意义。
During the implementation of GCE A-level selective examination in the UK,there has been a phenomenon of "science atrophy",which has raised some crises on "root loss" of professional talents cultivation in university,unbalanced supply of engineers and technicians,the decline of economic growth and international competitiveness and so on. Some main reasons have contributed to the "science atrophy" in Britain,such as maximization of individual interests driven by "economic man",subjective and objective difficulty of subjects,comparability policy of different subjects, "deliberate guidance" under the pressure of middle school performance ranking,and cultural stereotypes and gender bias.Britain actively improves its intervention and guidance mechanism. Britain have intervened and adjusted the "science atrophy" by means of the top-level design of the government's strategy of prospering science,the optimization of equivalent scoring mechanism of subjects in examination boards,the scientific guidance of career planning and academic experience in middle schools,the precise limitation of the guidance of university professional enrollment and selection,and the encouragement and support of professional institutions. Exploring this problem has certain practical significance for solving the problem of "abandoning physics" in the reform of college entrance examination in China.

关键词(KeyWords): 英国;高考;科目选择;理科萎缩
UK;college entrance examination;subject selection;science atrophy

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基金项目(Foundation): 教育部人文社科青年基金项目“高考‘科目自选’与大学‘招录培养’对接机制比较研究”(项目编号:18YJC880066);; 河南省教育厅人文社科研究项目“国外大学招生考试一年多考制度体系及对我省高考改革新方案研制与实施成效影响研究”(项目编号:2016-ZC-038);; 河南师范大学优秀青年科学基金项目“综合素质评价纳入高考进程中舞弊风险识别与预警机制研究”(项目编号:YQ201708)

作者(Author): 苗学杰;姜媛媛;
MIAO Xuejie;JIANG Yuanyuan;Faculty of Education,Henan Normal University;

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