外国教育研究

2020, v.47;No.360(06) 90-100

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论日本市町村合并对其义务教育管理的影响
Study on the Impact of the Urban-Rural Integration on the Compulsory Education Management in Japan

王路曦;朱家存;
WANG Luxi;ZHU Jiacun;College of Educational Science,Anhui Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

从19世纪末开始,面对人口少子化、地域过疏化、快速城市化给社会管理、经济发展、教育发展带来的挑战,日本进行了明治大合并、昭和大合并、平成大合并三次大规模的市町村合并。这三次合并对义务教育发展及其管理体制改革产生了重要的推动作用,具体表现为:第一,根据教育需求设置村镇规模,促进了义务教育的合理空间布局;第二,强化地方分权法律支持,提升了地方教育管理权限;第三,明确了教育经费承担体制,确保了义务教育稳定发展。但是,市町村合并也给义务教育发展带来了师生通勤距离变长,安全及教育成本增加;地方分权制扩大,各地义务教育管理资金投入不均;教育管理无法兼顾效率与公平,导致教育不均衡等诸多问题。鉴于此,对我国在城乡一体化背景下进行的义务教育体制管理改革提出以下建议:结合城乡及村镇的现实情况,对义务教育学校进行合理布局;积极落实教育投入政策,保障义务教育稳定发展;宏观微观统筹协调,进一步健全教育管理体制等。
From the end of the 19 th century,Japan has conducted three large-scale "Municipal Mergers",namely Meiji merger,Showa merger and Heisei merger. These three large-scale mergers have played an important role in the promotion of compulsory education and its management system reform. The specific performances as follows:firstly,based on the requirements to set scale of villages and towns,and promoted the rational space layout of compulsory education;secondly,improved the legal support for decentralization and enhance the authority of local education management;thirdly,the investment of education funds is guaranteed to be effectively promoted. The development of compulsory education.However,the Municipal mergers have brought some uneven education issues like longer distance between teachers and students to go to school,increased costs in safety and education,expanded local decentralization system,and uneven investment in compulsory education management;education management cannot balance efficiency and fairness. In that case,based on the background of urban-rural integration in China of the compulsory education system management reform,this paper has provided some suggestions including integrating the compulsory education schools with the actual situation,actively implementing the education policy,guaranteeing the stable investment of compulsory education,separating government affairs,clear rights and responsibilities,coordinating the reform,normalizing the orderly education management system from both macro and micro aspects.

关键词(KeyWords): 日本;市町村合并;义务教育管理;城乡一体化
Japan;municipal mergers;compulsory education management;urban-rural Integration

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家社会科学基金重点项目“中小学教师编制城乡一体化研究”(项目批准号:13ASH006)

作者(Author): 王路曦;朱家存;
WANG Luxi;ZHU Jiacun;College of Educational Science,Anhui Normal University;

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