外国教育研究

2020, v.47;No.362(08) 115-128

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预防校园暴力:美国冲突解决教育的理论基础与实施路径
Preventing School Violence:The Theoretical Foundation and Practice Paths of Conflict Resolution Education in the U.S.

程力;沈晓敏;
CHENG Li;SHEN Xiaomin;Institute of International and Comparative Education,East China Normal University;College of Teacher Education,East China Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

冲突是生活中必不可少的一部分,教会学生如何建设性地应对冲突至关重要。美国从20世纪60年代起就已在校园中推行冲突解决教育项目,以提高学生应对冲突的能力。冲突解决教育的理论主要源于社会心理学家莫顿·道奇的社会互赖理论。约翰逊等人在这一理论的基础上,提出了学生冲突解决教育的理论框架,即建立同伴之间积极的互赖关系、指导学生积极互动、教学生寻找冲突解决的替代性方案以及发挥学校的作用。同时提出了冲突解决教育实践路径,具体包括:创建合作环境;训练学生的交涉能力和同伴调解能力;开展学术性争议活动。以此提高学生建设性应对冲突的能力,进而减少校园暴力,保障校园安全,并培养维护世界和平的力量。
Conflict is an essential part of life,and it is important to teach students how to deal with it constructively. The United States has been implementing conflict resolution education programs in schools since the 1960s to improve students' ability to cope with conflict. Its theoretical foundation is mainly derived from social psychologist Morton Dodge's theory of social interdependence. On the basis of this theory,Johnson et al. proposed the theoretical framework of conflict resolution education for students,that is,establishing a positive interdependence relationship,guiding students to interact actively,exploring alternative solutions to conflict resolution,and playing the role of schools. And they put forward the practice paths of conflict resolution education:create a cooperative environment;train students' negotiation skills and peer mediation skills;carry out structural academic controversies. In this way,the ability of students to deal with conflicts constructively can be improved,so as to reduce campus violence,ensure campus security and cultivate the power of maintaining world peace.

关键词(KeyWords): 美国;校园暴力;冲突解决教育;社会互赖;同伴调解;学术性争议
U.S.;school violence;Conflict Resolution Education;social interdependence;peer mediation;SAC

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家社会科学基金“十三五”规划2019年度教育学一般课题“中学生冲突解决能力培养研究”(课题批准号:BEA190109)

作者(Author): 程力;沈晓敏;
CHENG Li;SHEN Xiaomin;Institute of International and Comparative Education,East China Normal University;College of Teacher Education,East China Normal University;

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