外国教育研究

2020, v.47;No.360(06) 3-22

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学术资本视角下19世纪德国大学之崛起
The Rise of German Universities in the 19th Century from the Perspective of Academic Capital

胡钦晓;
HU Qinxiao;School of Education,Qufu Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

19世纪德国高等教育迅速崛起,并占领世界之巅长达一个世纪。相对其他资本形式,通过学术资本的视角,或许更能够把握其崛起的本质,因为大学是从事高深知识的机构。从学术资本的视角来看,政府主导是大学学术资本的生成环境,不同于法国模式的控制和束缚,不同于英国模式的放任和保守,德国模式更倾向宽容和自由;知识创新是大学学术资本的逻辑起点,哲学代替神学、自然科学兴起、习明纳创办、强调独立原创,都为大学注入了创新活力;知识传授是大学学术资本的演绎基础,教师授课平等竞争、学生自由交叉学习、师生教学研究互动,形成了德国人才培养的鲜明特色;知识应用使大学学术资本获得了理性拓展,声望感召成为大学学术资本积累的强劲动力。反思19世纪德国大学所走过的学术资本历程,对于当下高等教育发展仍然具有重要的借鉴意义。
Since the beginning of the 19 th century,German higher education has risen rapidly and occupied the top of the world for a century. Compared with other forms of capital,from the perspective of academic capital,it may be better to grasp the essence of its rise,because the university is an institution engaged in advanced knowledge. From the perspective of academic capital,government-led is the generation environment of university academic capital. Different from the control and restraint of French model,different from the laissez faire and conservatism of British model,German model is more inclined to tolerance and freedom. Knowledge innovation is the logical starting point of university academic capital. Philosophy replaces theology,the rise of natural science,the establishment of Seminars,the emphasis on independent originality,it has injected innovation vitality into the university;knowledge instruction is the basis of the academic capital of the university. The equal competition of teachers,the free cross learning of students,and the interaction between teachers and students have formed the distinctive characteristics of German talent training. Knowledge application has made university academic capital expand rationally,and the appeal of reputation has become a strong driving force for the accumulation of university academic capital. Rethinking the academic capital history of German universities in the 19 th century still has important reference significance for the development of higher education.

关键词(KeyWords): 德国;大学;学术资本;高深知识;声望感召
Germany;university;academic capital;advanced knowledge;prestige appeal

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家社会科学基金“十二五”规划2014年度教育学一般课题“学术资本与大学发展”(课题批准号:BIA140104)

作者(Author): 胡钦晓;
HU Qinxiao;School of Education,Qufu Normal University;

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