外国教育研究

2019, v.46;No.353(11) 92-104

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家庭教养方式的阶层分化及其后果:国外研究进展与反思
Class Differentiation and Its Consequences of Child-Rearing Style:Research Progress and Reflection

刘程;廖桂村;
LIU Cheng;LIAO Guicun;Institute of Sociology,Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences;School of Marxism,Tongji University;

摘要(Abstract):

自20世纪中叶起,国外研究系统讨论了家庭教养方式的阶层分化及其后果问题。这些研究发现:与低阶层家庭(如劳工阶层、贫困家庭)相比,高阶层家庭(如中产阶层家庭)更加重视子女人格发展的内在目标(如好奇心、自主性),对子女的学业期望更高。高阶层家庭多以"协作培养"模式养育子女,亲子陪伴更多、亲子互动更民主,家庭语言以"精致型符码"为主,对子女行为管束的手段相对温和,家庭生活组织化程度更高,且父亲对子女养育的参与更多。此外,高阶层家庭对家校合作以及各类校外补习、兴趣培养和社会实践活动的参与也更积极。相应的,其子女的人格与社会性发展、认知能力与学业成绩发展更佳,出现问题行为的风险更低。但值得反思的是:社会阶层、家庭教养方式与儿童发展结果之间并不是专属化对应的,而且影响家庭教养方式和儿童发展的因素是复杂和多元的。
Since the middle of twentieth century,foreign studies have shown that there is a significant class differentiation in child-rearing style. Comparing with lower class families(e.g. working-class and poor families),higher class families(e.g. middle-class families)pay more attention to children's internal personality goals(such as curiosity and autonomy)and have higher academic expectation of their children. Most of them engage in a child-rearing process named as "Concerted Cultivation",characterized by more time in company with children,mainly using "Elaborated Code" during parent-child communication,higher organizational family life,and more active in father involvement. Moreover,their children are arranged to engage in parent-school cooperation and extracurricular activities frequently. Therefore,their children's cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are better developed,and the risk of problem behaviors is relatively lower. However,there isn't exclusive correspondence among social class,child-rearing style and child development,and the factors influencing child-rearing style and child development are complex and diversified.

关键词(KeyWords): 家庭教养方式;阶层分化;协作培养;社会不平等
child-rearing style;class differentiation;concerted cultivation;social inequality

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 上海社会科学院院课题“家庭教养模式的阶层分化与儿童认知—非认知能力发展研究”(课题编号:2018SKY30)

作者(Author): 刘程;廖桂村;
LIU Cheng;LIAO Guicun;Institute of Sociology,Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences;School of Marxism,Tongji University;

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