外国教育研究

2020, v.47;No.363(09) 87-98

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自下而上:俄罗斯社区学校的演进及启示
From Bottom to Top:The Evolution and Enlightenment of the Russian Community School

王森;
WANG Sen;The School of International Studies,Zhengzhou University;

摘要(Abstract):

进入21世纪以来,俄罗斯教育改革呈现出自上而下和自下而上两种力量相结合的崭新特点。俄罗斯社区学校创新发展即是由社会团体和基层教育实践者推动的一场自下而上的学校教育变革运动,表现出以局部带动整体的改革推动力量。通过分析俄罗斯学校教育从国家管理到国家与社会共治的转变,杜威教育社会化思想对俄罗斯社区学校理念形成的影响,以及俄罗斯学校教育实践从校外教育到学校与社区互动的变化,可以清楚地透视出俄罗斯社区学校从国家政策支持、理念形成到实践推进的演变过程。尽管俄罗斯社区学校建设面临不少难题,但它代表了教育改革的另外一种路径,对基础教育改革与社区发展产生了重要的影响。
Since the beginning of the 21 st century,Russia's educational reform has taken on new features of combining top-down and bottom-up strengths. The innovation and development of Russian community schools is a bottom-up school education reform movement promoted by social groups and grassroots education practitioners,which shows the power of reform that drives overall development with local development. By analyzing the transformation of Russian school education from state management to national and social co-governance,the influence of Dewey's educational socialization concept on the formation of Russian community school ideas and the change of Russian school education practice from off-campus education to school-community interaction,the evolution of Russian community schools from the perspective of national policy support,concept formation to practice advancement is revealed. Although Russian community schools are faced with many difficulties,it represents another path of education reform and has important influence on basic education reform and community development.

关键词(KeyWords): 俄罗斯;教育改革;社区学校;演进
Russia;educational reform;community school;evolution

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基金项目(Foundation): 2016年度河南省哲学社会科学规划项目“丝绸之路泛俄语国家外语教育政策与区域发展研究”(项目编号:2016BYY017)

作者(Author): 王森;
WANG Sen;The School of International Studies,Zhengzhou University;

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