外国教育研究

2020, v.47;No.355(01) 31-44

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评价如何促进学习?——从泰勒到厄尔的探索与反思
How Does the Evaluation Promote Learning?——Exploration and Reflection from Taylor to Earl

李鹏;
LI Peng;Department of Education,East China Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

以评促学是学习评价的终极目标,但是,评价如何促进学习却始终争议不断。在历史上,泰勒的"目标模式"、斯凯瑞文的"目标游离模式"和斯塔弗尔比姆的"改进模式"等理论围绕"评价有什么用"的探索建构了以评促学的"目标—改进—结果"理论框架。进入学本评估时代,关于学习的评价、促进学习的评价和作为学习的评价将"以评价促进学习"理解为过程的"黑箱",探明了学习评价"评价实施—结果反馈—教学改进+学习改进—效用生成"的作用机理。因此,为推进以评促学的实践,教师和学生等评价相关主体需要辩证看待学习评价的直接结果,反思评价结果的教育价值和改进方向,在评价后的学习和发展上追求更好的绩效。
Promoting learning by evaluation is the ultimate goal of learning evaluation.However,how to promote learning is always controversial. In history,Taylor's "goal model",Stufflebeam's "improvement model" and Scriven's "target free mode" have been built around the "evaluation of what is it". The theoretical framework of "goal-improvement-results". Into the era of academic evaluation,the evaluation of learning,the evaluation of learning promotion and the evaluation of learning will be understood as "black box" of the process of "evaluating and promoting learning",and the evaluation of learning evaluation"evaluation implementation—result feedback-teaching improvement+ The process mechanism of learning improvement-utility generation. Therefore,in order to promote the practice of evaluating and promoting learning,teachers and students and other relevant subjects need to dialectically treat the direct results of learning evaluation,reflect on the educational value and improvement direction of evaluation results,and pursue better performance in post-evaluation learning and development.

关键词(KeyWords): 学习评价;以评促学;学习结果;评价反馈;学习改进
learning evaluation;evaluation to promote learning;learning results;evaluation feedback;learning improvement

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 全国教育科学“十二五”规划课题“大数据时代我国考试评价的机制创新与发展战略研究”(课题批准号:DGA140208);; 中国基础教育质量监测中心研究生创新项目“利用评价反馈促进学生学习的认知机制及其应用研究”(项目编号:SCSP-2016A1-14001)

作者(Author): 李鹏;
LI Peng;Department of Education,East China Normal University;

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