外国教育研究

2020, v.47;No.355(01) 57-73

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美国早期关于古典教育的辩论
The Debate on Classical Education of the Early America

赵辛阳;
ZHAO Xinyang;School of History,Wuhan University;

摘要(Abstract):

北美殖民地创建之初,古典教育~①占据着教育系统的主导地位。在美国立国后,急于为美利坚探寻新路的改革者们对传统的古典教育发起了挑战,他们认为,随着时代的演进,古代语言和知识已经失去了原先存在的实用功能价值。这引起了支持古典教育者的不满,他们发文维护古典语言和文化的权威地位。双方掀起了美国立国后关于古典传统教育的大辩论。由于这场辩论发生在美国国家建构的语境下,所以从学术讨论上升到了政治论争的层面。在这场论争中,反对者和辩护者双方表达了对共和国公民素质和教育功能的考量,以及明确对未来社会的发展方向的思考,辩论为日后美国教育和社会的变革预留了重要的思想和话语资源,推动了教育多元化的发展趋势。这场关于古典教育的讨论对于当代教育的发展而言有着重要的意义。
At the beginning of the settlement of Europeans in North America,classical education had been dominant in the system of colonial education. After the creation of the United States,many reformers were eager to pave the new ways to the innovation of American education. They challenged the classical education and believed the ancient languages and culture had become much more useless than before with the development of the time.Supporters of the classical education were disgruntled with the challengers. They defended the importance of classical education and ancient authorities. As a result,a big debate on classical education broke out in the founding era of the United States. In the context of the nation-building the debate was rather political than academic. In the debate,the defenders and challengers expressed their thoughts on qualities of the republican citizens,functions of education,and developmental directions of American society. The debate contributed important ideas and discourses to the reformation of American education and society,and promoted the diversification of education. Discussions about the debate on classical education may have profound implication for the development of modern education.

关键词(KeyWords): 美国;早期;古典传统教育;辩论;知识实用性;共和教育;现代化
United States;early era;traditional classical education;debate;usefulness of knowledge;republican education;modernization

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作者(Author): 赵辛阳;
ZHAO Xinyang;School of History,Wuhan University;

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