外国教育研究

2020, v.47;No.362(08) 3-16

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德国基础教育教材管理:编写·审定·选用
Textbook Management in the Stage of Basic Education in Germany:Compilation,Approval and Selection

孙进;张蒙蕊;
SUN Jin;ZHANG Mengrui;Institute of International and Comparative Education,Beijing Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

教材管理对教材质量乃至整体教育水平有着至关重要的影响。德国在基础教育阶段的教材建设与管理方面已经建立起相对成熟和完善的运作机制。就教材编写而言,各出版社按照国家和各州的法律,以各州教学大纲为标准,组织专业人员编写教材。就教材审定而言,各联邦州文教部或各州下属的教育研究机构负责依照各州学校法及教材审定规章对其进行审定。此外,也有部分联邦州免除了州政府层面的教材审定。就教材选用而言,各个学校通过教师会议、专业会议、教材管理委员会或学校会议等集体决策机构选出具体使用的教材。总的来看,德国基础教育阶段的教材建设与管理体现出多主体分工合作、编审分离、合理利用市场机制、依法依规进行民主管理的特征。德国的经验对于完善我国的教材建设与管理具有重要的借鉴价值。
Textbook management has a crucial impact on the quality of textbooks and the overall level of education. Germany has developed a relatively mature operational mechanism in the construction and management of textbooks in the stage of basic education. As far as the textbook compilation is concerned,the publishers organize professional staff to compile textbooks according to the national and state laws,taking the state syllabus as the standard. In the case of textbook approval,the ministries of culture and education or educational institutions affiliated with each federal state are responsible for the examination and approval of the textbooks. They approve the textbooks according to the state school law and textbook regulations. In addition,textbooks in some federal states are exempt from statelevel examination. In terms of the textbook selection,each school selects specific textbooks through collective decision-making bodies such as teacher conference,professional conference,textbook management committee or school conference. In general,German textbook construction and management in the stage of basic education reflects the characteristics of multi-agent division of labor,separation of edition and examination,rational use of market mechanism and democratic management based on the law. The experience of Germany has important reference value for improving the construction and management of textbooks in China.

关键词(KeyWords): 德国教育;基础教育;教材管理;教科书研究;教材建设
German education;basic education;textbook management;textbook research;teaching material construction

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基金项目(Foundation): 2018年度教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目“世界主要国家教材建设研究”(项目批准号:18JZD017)

作者(Author): 孙进;张蒙蕊;
SUN Jin;ZHANG Mengrui;Institute of International and Comparative Education,Beijing Normal University;

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