外国教育研究

2021, v.48;No.373(07) 101-111

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日本学前教育免费制度:背景、架构与问题
Free System of Preschool Education in Japan:Background, Structure and Problems

孙雪荧;李玲;
SUN Xueying;LI Ling;Education Policy Institute, Faculty of Education, Southwest University;

摘要(Abstract):

为了解决少子化问题,让所有孩子都接受高质量的学前教育,日本从2019年10月1日开始全面实施学前教育免费制度。该制度的对象群体包含所有3~5岁儿童和非纳税家庭的0~2岁儿童。这是继义务教育免费化后日本教育的又一大改革,虽然经历了前期的以低收入和多子家庭为核心的学前教育免费制度阶段化推行期,但全面推行后,在经费、师资队伍、制度的对象范围上依旧存在诸多问题。
In order to solve the problem of declining birthrate and allow all children to receive high-quality preschool education, Japan has implemented a free preschool education system from October 1, 2019. The target group of the system includes all children aged3 to 5 and children aged 0 to 2 from non-taxable families. This is another major reform in Japanese education after the free compulsory education. Although it has experienced the staged implementation period of the free pre-school education system centered on low-income and multi-child families, after the full implementation, funding and faculty, there are still many problems in the scope of the system.

关键词(KeyWords): 日本;学前教育免费制度;幼儿园;保育设施
Japan;free preschool education system;kindergarten;childcare facilities

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基金项目(Foundation): 2019年度教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金西部和边疆地区项目“西部农村薄弱学校‘扶智工程’研究”(项目批准号:19XJC880008);; 国家社会科学基金重大招标项目“教育阻断贫困代际传递的政策设计与评估研究”(项目批准号:18ZDA338)

作者(Author): 孙雪荧;李玲;
SUN Xueying;LI Ling;Education Policy Institute, Faculty of Education, Southwest University;

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