外国教育研究

2022, v.49;No.382(04) 64-76

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挪威促进早期儿童参与教育的背景、举措及挑战
Background, Initiatives and Challenges in Promoting Early Childhood Participation in Education in Norway

靳璐;饶从满;
JIN Lu;RAO Congman;Institute of International and Comparative Education,Faculty of Education,Northeast Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

儿童的参与权已得到国际承认,教育作为儿童日常活动的主要阵地,在教育中促进儿童参与具有重要意义。随着儿童观的转变和儿童参与权利运动的推动,北欧早期儿童教育以独立个体和“有能力”的儿童为出发点,认为儿童早期是实现儿童权利的关键阶段,强调在教育中考虑儿童的观点。挪威为促进儿童参与教育,自上而下采取了三方面的举措:通过法律法规对儿童参与教育的权利进行规范和引导;将幼儿园作为促进儿童参与教育的重要机构和场所;把游戏作为幼儿园促进儿童参与教育的主要媒介。虽然挪威在促进儿童参与教育方面表现良好,但在教育实践中仍面临着许多挑战,从儿童参与来看,早期儿童的特殊性导致参与的可能性遭到怀疑;从政策本身来看,政策对儿童参与教育概念界定比较模糊;从执行者来看,相关主体对早期儿童参与教育的概念理解不足;从具体实施来看,幼儿园游戏设置未充分考虑早期儿童参与权。
Children's right to participate has been recognized internationally. Education, as the main front of children's daily activities, is of great significance to promote children's participation in education. With the transformation of the concept of children and the promotion of the movements of the children's participation, early childhood education in Northern Europe takes independent individuals and "capable" children as the starting point, and believes that early childhood is the key stage to realize children's rights and emphasizes the the view of considering children in education. In order to promote children's participation in education, Norway has taken three measures from top to bottom. The rights of children to participate in education are regulated and guided by laws and regulations,and kindergartens are regarded as important institutions and places to promote children's participation in education,and games as the main media to promote children 's participation in education in kindergartens. Although Norway has performed well in promoting children's participation in education, Norway still faces many challenges in promoting early children's participation in education practice. From the perspective of child's participation, the particularity of early children leads to doubts about the possibility of participation;From the perspective of the policy itself, the definition of children's participation in education is relatively vague;From the perspective of the executor, the relevant subjects have insufficient understanding the concept of early children's participation in education;From the perspective of specific implementation, the setting of kindergarten game not fully consider the participation right of early children.

关键词(KeyWords): 挪威;儿童参与;教育;早期儿童;幼儿教育
Norway;child participation;education;early childhood;early childhood education

Abstract:

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作者(Authors): 靳璐;饶从满;
JIN Lu;RAO Congman;Institute of International and Comparative Education,Faculty of Education,Northeast Normal University;

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