外国教育研究

2021, v.48;No.373(07) 87-100

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20世纪80年代末以来日本幼儿园课程标准的历史演进
The Evolution of Japan's Kindergarten Curriculum Standards since the End of 1980s

王幡;刘在良;
WANG Fan;LIU Zailiang;Institute of Child Development,Jinhua Polytechnic;Foreign Languages College,Shandong Normal University;

摘要(Abstract):

自1989年以来,日本幼儿园课程标准经历了一个继承、演化与建构相互交融的过程。这个过程是从确定五个领域开始,又不断修订和完善五个领域的过程;是不断探索幼儿的游戏玩耍与学习之间的关系的过程;是不断推动幼儿教师专业化有序发展的过程。在此过程中,体现国家意志的课程目标不断演进,如培养幼儿具备应有的情感、意志和态度;培养幼儿生存能力的基础;培养幼儿应有的素质与能力、培养幼儿形成理想的形象。其间始终坚持儿童本位、坚持以儿童自主游戏为中心、遵循从幼儿园到高中教育一贯性原则、坚持五个领域等。这个演进过程是一个不断反思检讨、不断重新开始的过程,正如现象学所倡导的持续不断重新开始,回归幼儿最原初的生活世界。其本质就是一个不断推动幼儿园"去小学化"、努力保障幼儿教育独特性、更好地完成课程目标的过程,也是唤起人们尊重童年生命意义的过程。
Since the year of 1989, Japan's kindergarten curriculum standards have gone through a process of integration of inheritance, evolution and construction. This process starts from identifying the five fields, which are continuously revised and perfected. It is a process of constantly exploring the relationship between children's play and learning,and a process of promoting the professional and orderly development of preschool teachers.In this process, the curriculum objectives reflecting the national will are constantly evolving, such as cultivating children with the appropriate emotion, will and attitude, cultivating the foundation of children's survival ability, cultivating children's proper quality and ability and cultivating children to form an ideal image and so on. During this period, children's standard is always persisted, children's independent games are taken as the center, the consistency principle of education from kindergarten to high school is followed, and the five fields are insisted and so on. This evolutionary process is a process of constant reflection and restart, as it is advocated by phenomenology, we must keep continuous fresh start and return to the primordial living world of children. The essence of this is a process of continuously promoting "to remove the tendency of primary school" amid kindergarten education,striving to ensure the uniqueness of early childhood education, and better achieving curriculum objectives. It is also a process of arousing people's respect for the meaning of childhood life.

关键词(KeyWords): 日本;幼儿园;课程标准;去小学化;现象学视角;童年生命
Japan;kindergarten;Curriculum Standards;to remove the tendency of primary school;phenomenology perspective;childhood life

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 浙江省教育科学规划2021年度一般规划课题(高校)“适应学龄前儿童‘去小学化’的自然教育课程建设研究”(课题编号:2021SCG062);; 浙江省哲学社会科学规划课题“乡村普惠性幼儿园社会责任践行研究”(课题编号:20NDJC222YB)

作者(Author): 王幡;刘在良;
WANG Fan;LIU Zailiang;Institute of Child Development,Jinhua Polytechnic;Foreign Languages College,Shandong Normal University;

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