外国教育研究

2021, v.48;No.372(06) 33-45

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新管理主义情境下全球学术职业的变革与坚守——基于组织专业主义与职业专业主义分化的视角
Reforms and Persistence of Global Academic Profession in the Context of New Managerialism——Based on the Differentiation of Organizational Professionalism and Occupational Professionalism

王思懿;
WANG Siyi;Institute of Development,Southwestern University of Finance and Economics;

摘要(Abstract):

当前,在高等教育全球化、市场化和新管理主义的影响下,强调绩效、竞争、控制的组织专业主义逐渐兴起,传统的以专业身份、学术认同和合议制为核心的职业专业主义逐渐式微。组织专业主义倾向于运用绩效评估、产出控制等效率和竞争导向的管理主义手段评估学术人员绩效以刺激学术产出,同时采用更加标准化和更具国际可比性的职业发展模式提高管理效率和组织竞争力。而职业专业主义则恪守传统的职业规范和价值理念,主要通过合议制、同行评议、专业网络等机制对学术工作实践发挥影响。当涉及教学和科研评价、教师聘任与晋升评价等核心学术事务时,许多管理主义路径仍然需要依靠学术委员会审议和外部同行评议等恪守专业主义的学术惯例和规则来获得合法性。在组织专业主义与职业专业主义的共同影响下,学术人员面临的双重身份冲突和归属矛盾进一步加剧。鉴于此,应适度弱化学术管理制度的绩效和竞争导向,赋予学术群体更大的专业自主空间,培育高水平的、成熟的学术共同体,通过精细化的制度设计确保专业权威能够不受管理权威的干扰公正行使学术决策权,从而增强学术职业的独立性和自主性。
Currently,under the influence of globalization,marketization and new managerialism of higher education,organizational professionalism highlighting performance,competition and control is gradually emerging,whereas the traditional occupational professionalism with professional identity,academic recognition and collegiality as its core is gradually declining. Organizational professionalism tends to use efficiency and competition-oriented management methods such as performance evaluation and output control to evaluate academic performance and stimulate academic output. Meanwhile,a more standardized and internationally comparable career development model is adopted to improve management efficiency and organization competitiveness. While the occupational professionalism adheres to traditional professional standards and values,and exerts its influence on academic work practice mainly through collegiality,peer review,professional network. When it comes to core academic affairs such as teaching and research evaluation,faculty appointment and promotion evaluation,many managerialist approaches still need to rely on academic practices and rules adhering to professionalism such as academic committee review and external peer review to obtain legitimacy. Under the joint influence of organizational professionalism and occupational professionalism,academics are simultaneously confronted with the conflict of academic identity and the contradiction of dual commitment. Based on this,the performance and competition orientation of academic management system should be moderately reduced,and academic groups should own more professional independence to cultivate high-level mature academic community. To ensure the authority of professional exercise the academic decision-making power free from the interference of management authority through elaborative institutional design,so as to enhance the independence and autonomy of academic profession.

关键词(KeyWords): 新管理主义;学术职业;组织专业主义;职业专业主义
New Managerialism;academic profession;organizational professionalism;occupational professionalism

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 全国教育科学规划2018年度国家青年课题“高等教育质量保障的法律规制研究”(课题编号:CIA180271)

作者(Author): 王思懿;
WANG Siyi;Institute of Development,Southwestern University of Finance and Economics;

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