外国教育研究

2022, v.49;No.382(04) 3-18

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不做欺凌“剧场”的观众——国际视阈下校园欺凌中的旁观者群体研究
Don't Be the Audience in the Theater of Bullying——A Study on Bystander Groups in School Bullying from an International Perspective

何树彬;
HE Shubin;School of Criminal Law,East China University of Political Science and Law;

摘要(Abstract):

校园欺凌是一种群体现象,是多角色互动作用的结果。欺凌场景成为各角色互动的前台,旁观者作为欺凌“剧场”的观众,其态度、言语、行为促成了欺凌倾向性向现实的转化。增强对旁观者的教育、引导,改变产生和维持校园欺凌的同伴生态环境,是一些发达国家提升校园欺凌防治实效性的成功经验。芬兰、挪威、美国、加拿大等国的理论研究与实践表明,旁观者的有效介入可以减少校园欺凌的发生,改变校园欺凌的走向,减轻校园欺凌带来的伤害。具体可从环境与个体两个维度共五个方面展开:明确反校园欺凌规则,明晰旁观者的援助义务和程序;加强正向价值引导,减少欺凌者通过欺凌所获得的“收益”;培育“支持型”校园文化氛围,为旁观者干预校园欺凌提供积极的外部环境;形成积极的同伴互动关系,构建良好的同伴生态环境;帮助旁观者掌握安全、有效的介入策略。
School bullying is a group phenomenon,which results from the interaction of multiple roles. The bullying scene becomes the front stage for interaction among the characters,and the bystanders,as the "audience" of the bullying "theater",their attitudes,words,and behaviors have contributed to the transformation of bullying tendencies into reality.Strengthening the education and guidance of bystanders,and changing the ecological environment of peers that produce and maintain school bullying is the successful experience of some developed countries in improving the effectiveness of school bullying prevention.Theoretical research and practice in Finland,Norway,the United States and Canada and other countries show that the effective intervention of bystanders can reduce the occurrence of school bullying,change the trend of school bullying,and reduce the harm caused by school bullying. Specifically,it can be carried out from two dimensions of environment and individual in five aspects:clarifying anti-school bullying rules and assistance obligations and procedures of bystanders;strengthening positive value guidance to reduce the "benefits" gained by bullies through bullying;cultivating a supportive campus cultural atmosphere to provide a positive external environment for bystanders to intervene in school bullying;forming positive peer interactions to build a good peer ecological environment;and helping bystanders to master safe and effective intervention strategies.

关键词(KeyWords): 校园欺凌;旁观者;同伴群体;转化;保护
school bullying;bystander;peer group;transformation;defend

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家社会科学基金教育学一般课题“学校生态系统框架下校园欺凌的有效治理研究”(项目编号:BHA190129)

作者(Authors): 何树彬;
HE Shubin;School of Criminal Law,East China University of Political Science and Law;

参考文献(References):

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